Table: Concept Unification
(Similarities in Science of Pursuit)

Abstract concept

Corresponding concept in each pursuit system

Properties between concepts

In Universe

In Society

In Research

Pursued quantity

Negative action

Happiness(profit in economy)



Pursuit system









Pursued quantity is the largest in perfect pursuit system, compared with all possible systems


Particle¡¯s mass and charge

Personal desire to pursue more happiness

Fact and theory¡¯s desire to pursue more knowledge


Accumulative occupying

Particles¡¯ momentum-energy

People¡¯s desire for commodity

Concepts¡¯ desire for proof and explanation


Possible accumulative Occupied

Point in space-time

A possible combination of commodities

Possible proof and explanation


Market(Set of possible accumulative occupied)



Researcher¡¯s mind

Pursuers move in market; possible contracts search pursuer in market



Actual state of human beings

Actual state of facts and theories

Realized mapping between occupying and occupied

Realized cycling occupying

Positive and negative charge

Producer and consumer, their marginal desire to price change

Theories and facts,

Mutual attraction between opposite occupying; mutual repulsion between like occupying

Possible contract

(possible cycling occupied)

Charge¡¯s field potential at a point

Offered price and price trend of a commodity to a possible pursuer state

Possible contradiction and possible explanation-proof from a pursuer

Possible contract is released from pursuer into market; chosen by pursuer from market


(Realized cycling occupied)

Negative electromagnetic field potential energy

Exchange between producer and consumer

Explanation and proof relation between a theory and a fact

Increasing the two pursuers¡¯ pursued quantity


(Realized cycling occupied)

Positive electromagnetic field potential energy

Relation between producers or consumers

Relation between two theories or two facts

Reducing the two pursuers¡¯ pursued quantity

Pursuer¡¯s pursuit process

Particle¡¯s orbit

Pursuer¡¯s history

Research history of a concept



Hubble red-shift


Knowledge progress

Accumulative occupying grows, result of correct pursuit.

Distribution of developing speed

Gravitational field; curved space-time

The mechanism for origin of large city and city group

The mechanism for origin of research subjects


Unstable possible contract

energy of photons

Unstable exchange


unstable possible occupied

Unstable realized contract

Particles¡¯ kinetic energy

Unstable exchange

Unstable explanations and proofs

Pursuers¡¯ unstable realized occupied

Creation of unstable occupied

Fusion between protons

Merging, between consumers¡¯ desires?

Analogy between facts

Source of unstable occupied


Basic natural laws

Social system, including statute laws and moral laws

Methods guiding research

Complete and consistent

Best methodology, perfect methodology

Basic natural laws

Advantage is universally valid in all pursuit systems

Advantage is universally valid in all pursuit systems

Leads to fastest development, adopted in perfect pursuit system

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